Monday, August 24, 2020

Peer Review of Strategic and Implementation Plans Essay Example for Free

Companion Review of Strategic and Implementation Plans Essay Colleagues gave criticism on the individual draft papers posted. The task was to give a key arrangement to our picked association. The arrangement expected to incorporate execution for goals, practical strategies, things to do, achievements and cutoff times, errands and undertaking proprietorship, and asset designations. Authoritative and the board changes, money related conjectures, and dangers with emergency courses of action additionally should have been tended to. One of the draft papers contained astounding breakdowns on the financials for a new business alongside points of interest on which partaking people would be liable for key things to do. The spending plan and deals gauge were sensible for what might be normal with another business. The recognized danger of low support volume from customers was distinguished, yet there was no emergency course of action for this regarding extra advertising. Another group member’s paper was clear in how client needs could affect the achievement of the vital arrangement. Inner and outside elements tended to representative relations and investor desires. The methodology the organization needs to take with conveying administration to clients is distinguished as factor that requirements to change as the arrangement is actualized. A SWOT investigation would be led and alternate courses of action made dependent upon the situation. The organization might need to build up a few alternate courses of action for basic issues inside its industry to be set up for these situations. The third draft assessed concentrated on short and long haul targets and the utilization of a fair scorecard way to deal with assessing and observing the plan’s execution. The basic segments for goals, useful tactics,â action things, and asset distribution were recognized. Significant changes to the authoritative structure and the executives positions were key elements to the company’s plan. End Albeit all colleagues didn't post drafts or offer input those that did gave subtleties appropriate to the task. Colleagues distinguished the things sketched out in the task and seem to have solid information on what a vital arrangement needs to deliver to be fruitful in meeting objectives.

Saturday, August 22, 2020


Examine A FAMILY VIOLENCE TOPIC AT A NATIONAL LEVEL - Research Paper Example (Severson, 2011) It was accounted for in the Seattle Times on April 2, 2007 that Rebecca Griego was â€Å"stalked and killed at the University of Washington by an injurious ex, who at that point killed himself.† (Carr, et al, 2007) It was accounted for by The New York Times on the tenth day of April 2011 that a lady was killed by her beau who perpetrated various cut injuries. Neighbors heard her shouting however when the police found her it was past the point of no return. An article distributed in The New Citizens Press October 23, 2009 reports that in 2007 45 people were executed in Michigan in abusive behavior at home related crimes in Michigan. The weapons of decision is expressed to have been a gun and over half of the casualties were slaughtered by a gun and 25% of the casualties were murdered by being cut. In 40% of the cases, the relationship had finished or was going to end. The greater part of the cases had an earlier history of aggressive behavior at home, all with the exception of two of the residential manslaughters were executed by guys. It was accounted for January 27, 2010 by the Houston Chronicle that the minister of a congregation situated in the region of Houston had been blamed for abusive behavior at home. The casualty was the pastor’s irritated spouse.

Monday, July 20, 2020


reBuy Entrepreneurial Insights / Cleverism team interviewed the founder CEO of reBuy Lawrence Leuschner. ReBuy is a reCommerce startup initially founded in 2004 and online launched in 2009 in Berlin.We have asked Lawrence several in-depth questions about the business model of reBuy, the market development of reCommerce, as well as Lawrences personal advices for other entrepreneurs!Lawrence also provided an analogy of entrepreneurship with a soccer game!Martin: Hi, today we are in Berlin with reBuy ( Lawrence, who are you and what do you do?Lawrence: My name is Lawrence. I am the Founder and CEO of reBuy. Our business model is pretty easy, we buy media and electronic products from our customers directly through our website and sell them through our channel reBuy on the homepage as a shop.Martin: When you did you start this company, and why did you start this company?Lawrence: The question why is pretty easy. My friend and I who started doing this business, we were two founde rs and then we were five founders. We were just sick of working for other people, it as really hard for us because they always told us what we should do, and as a young guy who is very open-minded, who wants to do something with his life, it was pretty hard. And then we decided that we should something on our own. And then decision was then that we should found something in our community which makes sense, which fits our interest, and what we can think and what we can build big. The idea was that we should up a store in our little town in Hesse where we would buy and trade used video games. And the idea was pretty good, but then we had to decide who was going to be in the store. We were both going to school, we were very young, and then there was the problem of who should be in the store and there was no solution, so we decided we should bring it to the internet because then we can reach everybody in the country, nobody has to go after school or during school or skip school to go to the shop. And then we needed other founders to help us program the website, and then we had two friends from our community who helped us to program our idea, and then we started with as website for used video games.Martin: When you first started with this offline shop, how did you finance the rental, did your parents or family help you with that?Lawrence: We didn’t have the time to be in the store so we decided to be online, and then we could do the work from home, and the video games that we offered for the customers was in my basement where I lived in my parents’ house, so we didn’t need a lot of money in the beginning. We had through business from friends who helped us to buy the first stock for the exchange of the video games and to found the company, and each of the founders used credit from our parents to bring some money on the table to do some marketing. So it was very lean in the beginning and every one of us was very committed.Martin: Let’s talk abou t the business model. How is the business model working right now, just the basic structure?Lawrence: It’s very easy. You as a customer have a lot of books at home, DVDs, you may have a mobile phone that you don’t use anymore, so you have a bunch of stuff that’s in your bookshelves, in your rooms, and there is a value for it. You can bring that value to our website, it’s very easy, you go on the website and you type in the name of the product that you have, and then for every product you get one price. It’s a fixed price, it’s not a bargain, it’s not an auction model. Then, normally, the customer sends us a box of around 20 products, that’s everything in, media and electronic products. And the average value is €80-90. So you sell the products to us as a company, we check every product, we grade every product. We have a big logistics center where we have a lot of people who really really take care of the products, who clean the products, who sometimes repair the pro ducts, and then we store them. And then we offer them with a nice discount as used stuff, repaired, refurbished, cleaned, on our website. So you can sell stuff to us and you can buy used stuff from us.Martin: You said that you started with these games and now you’re telling me you have got this media products and electronics, when did you start thinking about adding new product categories?Lawrence: For me in the beginning I was very sure that we were just being a games company, and we wanted to be the biggest used retailer of games, that was our vision. After a few years, between 2004 and 2007, I had military service, the founders were going to university or to school, so we didn’t have a lot of time to develop the business. And then in 2007 we said, okay, we want to be number one in the used games sector. We needed about two years, then we made revenues of around three, four, five million Euros, and with that size we were the biggest company of used games in Germany. We said, o kay, there is digitalization of media in the future, and a lot of customers said we want to have more used products, because the experience of using used products, for example a video game or a move, is just the same as you would buy it new. The game is the same, the actor plays the same role, there is no difference, but you have a nice discount of 40%. So we said with this business model we have to think bigger. And then 2009 we decided that we should expand our categories, and we started then with music, with DVDs, with consoles, and further on we saw the potential of the vision that in the future we can trade anything used, it doesn’t matter what it is. It can be clothes in the future, it can be cars, it can be everything, because there is the need of people who have products that home that they don’t want to put up in auction, e-Bay, and there are people who want to have a great discount on buying used stuff.And 2009 was the time when Al Gore presented all his values about t he climate change, and that influenced us into thinking more ecologically. And in the past we had the offer of buying new games as well, then we said we will just quit working and doing business with new stuff, we said we just want to do used stuff. So in the beginning it was very ecological, we offered the customer to sell stuff and they can do a charity for certain amount of the bank account, so there was a lot of green thinking in it. Because recommerce is very green, and it’s reusing, recycling, and that’s why we call it recommerce. It’s not ecommerce, it recommerce, recycling and reusing commerce, and that’s why we have this green touch and our culture is always thinking a bit green. But the business model itself is not a non-profit organization, it’s a business for profit. But the idea of it came in 2009.Martin: And when you are sourcing these boxes of €80-90 per box, what is the value proposition that you pitch to sellers of these boxes so they sell their books or media to you and not to others?Lawrence: We always have the three key points. It’s very easy, you just have to write the name, write the number, you can scan it with our app on the barcode on the back of the product, so you get a fixed price, very easy, and you can sell it very easy to us. It’s one box, it’s 20 products for €90. And on eBay you have to have an auction for every article, because no one’s buying your collection of your special interest. At the end the customer has to set up 20 options, 20 feedbacks to customers, because customers are asking questions, what condition the product is in, how old is it, blah, blah, blah. So we make the whole pain-in-the-ass e-Bay experience to a very convenient experience at reBuy.Second point, it’s really fast. It takes a lot of time sending that stuff on e-bay. It can take weeks because nobody’s buying it. We always have to wait if somebody is interested in buying your products, whereas we buy directly. So when you put ev erything in the box you get a label from us, and then you send the products to us, it takes about two day, we check it within 24 hours, and then you get your money in the next 24 hours. So it’s five to six days in total for selling your stuff and getting you money. So it’s very fast, second point.Third point, it’s very safe. There is nobody on the other side who tries to rip you off, there is a company behind it, and if you are not satisfied with the price you get it back, you can see the price on the website. So it’s very safe. And if you have any problems buying used stuff from us it’s very cheap.Martin: One of your key competences should be the pricing of the goods when you buy them. What I would find interesting is how do you price different products, and if it depends the on quality level of the used product, what happens if the delivered is lower than promised?Lawrence: It’s a good question. It depends. In the media segment, it’s very easy, we have a certain leve l of quality that we need, so we tell the customer at the beginning the sides of the book should not be ripped off, it should be in a normal, useable condition, to make it very easy. Normally there is no difference between the customer perspective and our perspective. So that’s very easy, there is no conflict. In the electronics sector it’s a bit different, because people have to grade their product. For example a mobile phone, they have to say what condition it is in overall, for example, it is very nice, it is in a very good condition, there’s no scratches, that’s what normally people say. If we get it and we see there are some scratches, maybe it was in the bathroom and inside there is water damage, so we check every product because we need to give guarantee to our customers on the selling side. So there is a certain rate of conflicts where have to tell a customer that we see it in a different way, if you don’t agree no problem, we send it back for free, it’s no probl em, but our experts have really tested every product and we can give you the information on what’s wrong. For example we now take pictures so the customer is really safe to know what’s going on. And then we offer the customer a new price, a new fair price, and then the customer decides whether it is okay it is fair or not, and normally the customer says it’s fair, and then it’s a new price agreement, and then it is fine.Martin: Can you tell us a little bit more about the corporate structure, where you are currently active in terms of operations, and what type of functions for the people working there and how do you make the split, for example?Lawrence: Our business reBuy it’s just in Germany and Austria. We have one logistics center, it’s here in Rudow in Berlin. Then we have our headquarters which are in the same building. In logistics there is a big split, there are people who are taking care of the inbound, the products coming in, checking the articles, we call it gra ding. And there is another part of people stocking the product and then sending it to the people who are buying it. Around 250 people are working this logistics department. We have around 30 people in our customer service, taking care of our customer questions. And then we have another a hundred people in our headquarters. We try to work with small teams, tech people, product management people, marketing people, for example, who develop our website, and there are some administrative operations like financing, accounting, controlling. But we try to push the company and the headquarters more into a technology company where we try to make the customer experience better for the customer every day. So that’s the overall view.Martin: Besides the pricing, what other core competencies could you identify for reBuy?Lawrence: Pricing is one, the second one is grading. We have developed our software from inbound to outbound, so we actually known what we’re going to check when the product ar rives. Our software service is so intelligent that we can add new questions very fast, so if we want to add tennis racket, for example, as a new category, sports equipment, we can drag and drop a new category. We know then that for a tennis racket we have to check out if there is any crack, that’s a question, we have to check that. So the whole grading process if one of our competences.Customer experience is one where we really focus on getting better every day, because we try to make it very easy for the customer, we’re picking up the stuff, we’re paying for the shipment, we have a process that is really fast towards the customer. So I would say pricing, customer experience and grading, that’s all three competencies.Martin: Let’s talk about the market development, especially contrasting the primary ecommerce market and the secondary ecommerce market, which is the market that you’re in. Can you elaborate on the market development in Austria and Germany over the last year s in terms of which market has grown faster and in which segments, and what would be your guess or forecast for the future?Lawrence: It’s a very underestimated and very very big market. The market data that you have is really poor, because most of the market research is on the new products. But there is some research that shows how big the market is, for example in German households there are 80 million mobile phones lying around, and that’s just stuff that’s not used anymore.Martin: Really, unused?Lawrence: Yes, unused 80 million mobile phones somewhere in their homes. So that’s just one category of phones that are not being used anymore. And when we started with this business in 2007, we really started in our flat in Hesse. We were pretty much the only ones who started this business. And now we have 25 competitors in this recommerce sector in Germany, so it’s very tough competition now. The biggest companies, they do together around €200 million in revenues. So from ze ro to two hundred in three to five years, that was pretty fast. There are 20 to 30 other companies doing the same business but on a lower level, so there are a lot of players in the market.With our website we sell the most used products in Germany in a shop, so we have a very nice position in the market. And we’re competing more with eBay and Amazon marketplace, because eBay is a big company, they have a lot of customers, and they see recommerce as a threat, they try to get into this business but they have no logistics. So we always try to make it easier and see where the problems of eBay are. But eBay is a very successful company and they do a billions of Euros in revenue in Germany, that’s a big step ahead from us, it’s where we should be in a few years, but it takes a bit of time. And Amazon is the second one in the used market, their marketplace is pretty big as well. So their numbers are growing, our number are growing, the whole market is growing, and it’s growing more into a recommerce segment. But we have to motivate, we have to tell people it is very easy selling stuff, because people used to sell a lot of stuff on eBay, but then they had bad experiences, there were some fraud problems and whatever, so the customers didn’t feel very safe anymore. For me as a customer as well, I was selling a lot of stuff on eBay. So we try to professionalize the market, make it easier, and then more of the classical used business from C2C companies should go to the C2B2C companies like reBuy.Martin: And in terms of market size, etc. for other European countries, or maybe some Asian markets, can you tell us something about that?Lawrence: Lets talk about mobile phones. Mobile phones are growing in every country heavily, for example in India ten million phones are being used every month. So there is a lot what I would call ‘electronic waste’, which we can reuse in every country. And, as I said, every household in Germany has the potential of being one custo mer by selling us their stuff. So has every country, because every country is using media, is using tech equipment, mobile phones, so there is always a need. And these markets are underdeveloped in comparison to Germany. For example, UK is a bit ahead of Germany, but in other countries outside of Germany there is so much potential to use recommerce.Martin: Lawrence, we always try to explain to people and give them some advice on starting companies. You told me that you always try to help your friends and give them advice, what advice can you share with our readers?Lawrence: Well, we can talk for hours, it is a very fascinating question because after ten years of entrepreneurship you can still do so many things wrong. And what I think is pretty good is that we always try to listen to other people. Sometime we take their advice and use it, sometimes not, but it’s very important even now to listen to more experienced people to get better. And for me there is no year, no moment, no da y when I don’t learn something. So it’s always important to be open, to try to get advisers, not to be in their own framework, maybe to get a mentor, maybe to surround yourself with people who are a bit more experienced or in the same situation, get experienced people into your management team who are better in a certain segment. Because as an entrepreneur you start to do everything by yourself, but then if you want to be really good in your business you need to get people who are specialists in their areas. So that’s very important to learn every day, to be open to learn.I think the willingness, the will power is pretty important. There were so many times when we were bankrupt or almost bankrupt, and we always said, come on, we can do this, let’s go further, let’s forget the pain, we can do it. And there were many times where we said okay it is not going to work, but we had the willpower to say, okay, we’ll go on. And that’s something very important, because not every business goes like this. Most of the times the business over years goes like this, and when you have go down you always have to stand up and say, okay, that is how life is, you have to stand up and go forward and look forward. So I think willpower as a characteristic of an entrepreneur is pretty important.Martin: Lawrence, you are a big soccer fan. Maybe you can give some kind of analogy between football and entrepreneurship, and what entrepreneurs can learn from soccer games, especially through the soccer world cup.Lawrence: Okay. If you would ask my management team, they can’t hear the soccer analogies to business anymore. [chuckles] No, but really I think there are lot of things that you can compare. For example, tonight playing the last game in the group games against USA, there is a lot of pressure for the team. As I said, they were up after the first game and then they went down against Ghana to 2 and people were not excited anymore, but you have to stand up now, you have t o be cool, you have to focus, and you have to think about what you can do. Believe in your strength, and if you the willpowers, if you believe you can do it, and the team is strong, then you will make it. And most of the games, most of the decisions in the business start in the head, so I think tonight if the brain is there, the concentration is there, the focus is there, and they go with a certain type of charisma on the field, for example Schweinsteiger who is on my back, we will win the game.Martin: So good luck for Germany.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 1182 Words

Perhaps the most notorious, fictional and desired organism is the money tree. Everybody wants one, but nobody knows the responsibilities and needs for this tree as it flourishes. Similar to this, everybody would love an infinite amount of the fruit, money, but don’t necessarily know the rain cloud that comes along with it. In the works The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, â€Å"Money† by William Henry Davies, and â€Å"Richard Cory† by Edwin Arlington Robinson, the mutual theme is that greed for money corrupts the general person and tears out all slivers of morality. We see in â€Å"Money† and The Great Gatsby the indication that money brings fair-weather friends, and also that poor people are more jubilant than rich people. Complementary, in â€Å"Richard Cory† and The Great Gatsby, it is suggested that outsiders view the rich as having no problems and always living lavish. However, throughout all works it can be interpreted that generally mone y brings a heaping wad of negativity into the lives of all who posses it. This negativity can arrive in the form of gold-digging, counterfeit friends that attach like leeches in a swamp. When the â€Å"closest† friends fail to have your back through thick and thin, questions arise about whether they are real friends or fake. In chapter 9 of Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, Wolfsheim reacts to an invitation to Gatsby’s funeral by saying, â€Å"I cannot come down now as i am tied up in some very important business†(Fitzgerald 166). Wolfsheim was perhaps one ofShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1393 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgerald was the model of the American image in the nineteen twenties. He had wealth, fame, a beautiful wife, and an adorable daughter; all seemed perfect. Beneath the gilded faà §ade, however, was an author who struggled with domestic and physical difficulties that plagued his personal life and career throughou t its short span. This author helped to launch the theme that is so prevalent in his work; the human instinct to yearn for more, into the forefront of American literature, where itRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1343 Words   |  6 PagesHonors English 10 Shugart 18 Decemeber 2014 The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald s 1925 novel The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story, a mystery, and a social commentary on American life. The Great Gatsby is about the lives of four wealthy characters observed by the narrator, Nick Carroway. Throughout the novel a mysterious man named Jay Gatsby throws immaculate parties every Saturday night in hope to impress his lost lover, Daisy Buchanan. Gatsby lives in a mansion on West Egg across from DaisyRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Gatsby The Jazz Age was an era where everything and anything seemed possible. It started with the beginning of a new age with America coming out of World War I as the most powerful nation in the world (Novel reflections on, 2007). As a result, the nation soon faced a culture-shock of material prosperity during the 1920’s. Also known as the â€Å"roaring twenties†, it was a time where life consisted of prodigality and extravagant parties. Writing based on his personal experiences, author F. ScottRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1166 Words   |  5 Pagesin the Haze F. Scott Fitzgerald lived in a time that was characterized by an unbelievable lack of substance. After the tragedy and horrors of WWI, people were focused on anything that they could that would distract from the emptiness that had swallowed them. Tangible greed tied with extreme materialism left many, by the end of this time period, disenchanted. The usage of the literary theories of both Biographical and Historical lenses provide a unique interpretation of the Great Gatsby centered aroundRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words   |  3 PagesIn F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. Gatsby’s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of w ealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay970 Words   |  4 Pagesrespecting and valuing Fitzgerald work in the twenty-first century? Fitzgerald had a hard time to profiting from his writing, but he was not successful after his first novel. There are three major point of this essay are: the background history of Fitzgerald life, the comparisons between Fitzgerald and the Gatsby from his number one book in America The Great Gatsby, and the Fitzgerald got influences of behind the writing and being a writer. From childhood to adulthood, Fitzgerald faced many good andRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2099 Words   |  9 Pagesauthor to mirror his life in his book. In his previous novels F. Scott Fitzgerald drew from his life experiences. He said that his next novel, The Great Gatsby, would be different. He said, â€Å"In my new novel I’m thrown directly on purely creative work† (F. Scott Fitzgerald). He did not realize or did not want it to appear that he was taking his own story and intertwining it within his new novel. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, he imitates his lifestyle through the Buchanan family to demonstrateRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1607 Words   |  7 Pages The Great Gatsby is an American novel written in 1925 by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the themes of the book is the American Dream. The American Dream is an idea in which Americans believe through hard work they can achieve success and prosperity in the free world. In F. Scott Fitzgerald s novel, The Great Gatsby, the American Dream leads to popularity, extreme jealousy and false happiness. Jay Gatsby’s recent fortune and wealthiness helped him earn a high social position and become one of the mostRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1592 Words   |  7 PagesMcGowan English 11A, Period 4 9 January 2014 The Great Gatsby Individuals who approach life with an optimistic mindset generally have their goals established as their main priority. Driven by ambition, they are determined to fulfill their desires; without reluctance. These strong-minded individuals refuse to be influenced by negative reinforcements, and rely on hope in order to achieve their dreams. As a man of persistence, the wealthy Jay Gatsby continuously strives to reclaim the love of hisRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1646 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1920s witnessed the death of the American Dream, a message immortalized in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Initially, the American Dream represented the outcome of American ideals, that everyone has the freedom and opportunity to achieve their dreams provided they perform honest hard work. During the 1920s, the United States experienced massive economic prosperity making the American Dream seem alive and strong. However, in Fitzgerald’s eyes, the new Am erican culture build around that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Power Over The United States - 1321 Words

Although bureaucracy’s have a significant amount of power over the United States most important decisions and laws they cannot always execute or perform certain actions. Two particular forces who oversee and control bureaucratic agencies are congress and the president who is part of the executive branch. Both congress and the president are constantly competing for agency control (Lecture 7 10/24/16). They both have their own individual and unique sets of strategies they use such as using congressional control, appropriations process, privatization, executive order and management of agency budget in order to seize complete command. The main goal of these two means of control are to ultimately limit the discretion of bureaucrats and to also if possible shrink the size and number of bureaucracies. Congress is a major component in deciding how well an agency will do and how well it will carry out its obligations. Despite the fact that bureaucracies in American can control, manipulate and have a profound impact on the lives of citizens and the nation as a whole, according to Herbert Kaufman â€Å"congress possesses an â€Å"awesome arsenal† of weapons that it can use against agencies: legislations appropriations, hearings investigations, and personal interventions in order to limit their effect. Now besides congress having the duty and responsibility of creating laws for the United States of America, congress can also check and balance bureaucratic agencies. They do so by using aShow MoreRelatedNuclear Energy Powers Over 20 % Of The United States2665 Words   |  11 PagesNuclear energy powers just about 20% of the United States. The United States holds only 100 of the reactors out of the 400 that are in the world. Even though a reactor does not put any pollutants in th e air it still creates nuclear waste. Nuclear fission use uranium and plutonium and turn them into smaller atoms. When splitting atoms you have to hit it with a neutron. When split several atoms can be split like a chain reaction. All power plants use fission and to make heat that will be used toRead MorePresidential Power Over Immigration Throughout From The United States1480 Words   |  6 Pages Presidential Power Over Immigration Throughout From the Constitutional Convention to Recent American History Youstina E. Youssef Academy of the Canyons Middle College High School Presidential Power Over Immigration Throughout From the Constitutional Convention to Recent American History The Constitution grants the U.S. President ample power regarding almost every aspect of governing the nation; yet, it grants him none directed specifically at immigration policies. In fact, the ConstitutionRead MoreSystem of Checks and Balances in America Essay1215 Words   |  5 PagesIn 1787 the United States of America Constitution, written by America’s forefathers, established a revised plan of government for the United States of America. The United States of America Constitution proclaims its purpose in its Preamble: â€Å"We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordainRead MoreEssay about The Judicial Branch1512 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States government consists of three main branches: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. Within the cont ents of this essay, the judicial branch will be examined. The judicial branch of the United States government oversees justice throughout the country by expounding and applying laws by means of a court system.1 This system functions by hearing and determining the legality of such cases.2 Sitting at the top of the United States court system is the Supreme Court. The SupremeRead MoreThe Articles Of Confederation And The Treaty Of Paris1442 Words   |  6 PagesFrom 1781 to 1789, the newly created United States of America put its trust in the Articles of Confederation to adequately govern itself in times of war and distress. The Articles of Confederation was the United States’ first attempt at a guideline for creating an effective federal government. It was efficient in holding the new country together during the Revolutionary War and managed to help the country attend to pressing foreign and economic problems right after the war. 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ASSESSED QUESTION Trusts and Equities Free Essays

string(67) " to the Society by Annabelle is not for the benefit of any person\." Introduction The situation with the Brighton Orchid Growing Society is a unique case in law because it involves a number of key considerations, such as the formation of a trust, the nature of a charitable trust and the procedure upon termination of that trust. The scenario with regards to Annabelle and the ball attendees will be considered herein to the extent that it shall be shown that there was the creation of a trust with the intention of disposing property for the beneficial interest of someone else and that this trust was charitable in nature under the relevant legislation. Upon termination of this trust, certain measures of public interest are applicable so that the spirit of the gift is not lost. We will write a custom essay sample on ASSESSED QUESTION: Trusts and Equities or any similar topic only for you Order Now Equity and Trusts It is evident that the situation between the Society, Annabelle and the ball attendees is a situation that indicates the presence of a trust. The situation described will be dealt with in terms of the applicable situation for Beatrice and separately, the issue of the ball attendees. Thomas and Hudson describe a trust as: ‘[T]he imposition of an equitable obligation on a person who is the legal owner of property (a trustee) which requires that person to act in good conscience when dealing with that property in favour of any person (the beneficiary) who has a beneficial interest recognised by equity in the property. The trustee is said to â€Å"hold the property on trust† for the beneficiary. There are four significant elements to the trust: that it is equitable, that it provides the beneficiary with rights in property, that it also imposes obligations on the trustee, and that those obligations are fiduciary in nature.’[1] There are three parties to a trust, namely the settler (or founder), the trustee and the beneficiary. A trust is created by a settlor, who transfers some or all of his property to a trustee, who holds that trust property for the benefit of the beneficiaries. In this instance, Annabelle is the settlor and whether or not the Society functioned as a trust prior to her death will determine whether her death created a testamentary trust, in other words the trust was formed upon her death by way of will or testament. There is however no indication on the facts that this is the case and this is increasingly unlikely if one considers that prior to her death, the fundraiser was collecting funds on behalf of the Society, which arguably places it as a trust prior to the death of Annabelle and the subsequent donation of funds. It can be assumed on the basis of the facts that the trust created was an express trust, as the settlors were the absolute owner of the subject matter of the trust. Althou gh this is an unclear assumption based on the facts given for the ball attendees, this much is certain for Annabelle who served as the President of the Society prior to her death and therefore it stands to reason that she understood the function and purpose of the money left to the trust. In order to establish a trust, there is the need for three certainties: Certainty of Intention, certainty of subject matter and certainty of object.[2] According to Paul v Constance[3] certainty of intention does not require the express intention to create a trust in those exact words, rather that there be the expressed intention to dispose of property so that someone else acquires a beneficial interest. According to the given facts, it is clear that the intention of Annabelle was to dispose of property in the form of money for the benefit of another party. Against the same frame of analysis used for Annabelle, a similar analysis can be carried out for the funds raised at the fancy dress ball. To the inquiry as to certainty of intention, it is debatable on the facts given whether the donations received at the fancy dress ball intended in any way for a trust situation to arise. If one applies the criteria of Paul v Constance that there be the expressed intention to dispose of propert y so that someone else acquires a beneficial interest, one can argue that there is little doubt that the donations made by Charlotte and Elizabeth were accepted with this intention in mind. It is arguable on the facts whether the proceeds from the ticket and raffle sales can be said to fall within the parameters of the same intention, as to a certain extent there is an element of quid pro quo here which denotes that this intention was one of personal motivation rather than a charitable donation for the benefit of another, as well. However, based on the facts that are available, it seems clear that these funds were collected for the purposes of disposing of this property for the beneficial interest of another. Palmer v Simmonds[4] is authority within the law for certainty of subject matter, which is to say that the exact subject matter of the trust must be determined. In the case of Annabelle, as well as the funds raised by the ball attendees, this is clear given that the money specified for the trust is exact and determined. Certainty of object is somewhat more problematic in this instance as the beneficiary is not a person. In Morice v the Bishop of Durham, Sir Grant stated that â€Å"there must be somebody, in whose favour the court can decree performance†.[5] According to this principle, unless the purpose is charitable, unless a trust is for a human beneficiary it will be void, this beneficiary principle is regarded as a cardinal one of the law relating to private trusts. There are exceptions to this principle, on account of the apparently definite pronouncement of the principle in Re Astor[6] which also allowed for some â€Å"anomalous exceptions† to it to be valid. This is known as the beneficiary principle. It is clear that the donation to the Society by Annabelle is not for the benefit of any person. You read "ASSESSED QUESTION: Trusts and Equities" in category "Essay examples" Therefore in order for the donation to have constituted a trust over which the members of the Society wer e trustees, the Society must either be charitable in purpose or the donation must fall within one of the scenarios identified as the exception to this rule. The Charities Act 2006 provides an equitable solution to this problem by extending the scope of what may be classified as a charitable trust, identifying in s2(2)(i) the advancement of environmental protection or improvement. According to Hudson,[7] the environment can be taken to refer to particular items of flora and fauna at a narrow end of the spectrum, to combating climate change or global warming as a broader purpose. There in terms of the Charities Act,[8] the certainty of object that is required for the validity of the trust is given as having a charitable purpose for the advancement of environmental protection. There is an extra requirement on a charitable trust that it be for public benefit. This is a statutory requirement which states that there must be an identifiable benefit to the public or a section of the public, although it has roots in the common law. According to operational guidelines set forth by the Charities Commission, the conservation of an environment constitutes public benefit. A sub-requirement of this is that the benefit be related to the aims of the charitable purpose. It is clear on the facts that the conservation of this species of orchid is closely related to the conservation of the environment which focuses on this particular species of flower. The aims of the charity therefore and the benefit are closely related. The benefit must also be balanced against any detrimental harm and therefore be for the overall benefit, rather than some benefit. It is clear that there is no detrimental harm in this case that is foreseeable for the trust and therefore it can be argued t hat the trust is beneficial. In terms of being a benefit to the public or a section of the public, the Charities Commission outlines that the class of people who can benefit must be a public class. In general, the public class must be sufficiently large or open in nature given the charitable aim that is to be carried out and that the benefits are widely available. Alternatively, where the benefit is to a section of the public, that this section not be unreasonably restricted.[9] It is clear that there are no restrictions on the benefit accruing in this case to the general public. The only restriction arguably is on geographical location in terms of who can physically benefit from the Society’s conservation efforts. Accordingly therefore on the basis of the above certainties as well as the fact that the trust creates a public benefit that there was the creation of a trust in favour of the charitable purpose of environmental protection. Termination or Winding Up of the Trust In the case of the termination of a non-charitable trust the consent of all beneficiaries is required and the remainder of the trust assets are divided equitably amongst the beneficiaries. The situation however is different for charitable trusts as there are no beneficiaries per se. Under the Charities Act, the cy-pres doctrine is application. The doctrine provides that when such a trust has failed because its purposes are either impossible or cannot be fulfilled, the High Court of Justice or Charity Commission can make an order redirecting the trust’s funds to the nearest possible purpose. For charities with a net worth of below ?5000 and with no land, the trustees may make a decision regarding the distribution of the trust’s assets. This order will be made with appropriate consideration which is defined as â€Å"the spirit of the gift concerned, and (on the other) the social and economic circumstances prevailing at the time of the proposed alteration of the original purposes†.[10] The funds therefore will not be distributed among the members of the Society and therefore the direction by the president to the treasurer to distribute these assets is accordingly invalid. The court may make an order therefore directing that the surplus funds of the Society be redirected towards a similar cause. Although it was stated that the growing of Orchids was ecologically unsound, the spirit in which the gift was made, or the intention of Annabelle was to erect a bronze statue of a rare orchid. Despite the failed purpose of the society, there are no prevailing reasons why this statue cannot still be erected and therefore it stands to reason that a portion of the funds may be redirected towards this cause. The Charities Act also allows the commission to take into consideration factors of social utility, or as it is specifically referred to in the act, to conditions of social and economic circumstances. According to the Charities Commission, there is little point in preserving trusts that will not allow the property of the terminated charity to be appropriate and effectively applied in the light of these current social and economic circumstances.[11] Considering therefore that the purpose of the society has been found to be ecologically unsound, the surplus funds may be directed elsewhere by the charities commission, although there is little evidence based on the given facts to entertain speculation as to this distribution. Conclusion Although it is regrettable that the Society be wound up, the intentions and spirit with which the funds were bequeathed to the Society still have the opportunity to fulfil the functions for which they were intended at least in part. There is the possibility that the bronze statue envisioned by Annabelle may still be built and that the surplus funds be used for a similar purpose as that for which they were intended. A combination of common law and new statutory provisions has ensured a maximum consideration for public benefit in these types of organisations ensuring that the charitable wishes of the benefactors are respected in as greater way possible. Bibliography Primary Source Charities Act 1992 as amended Charities Act 2006 Charities Act 2011 In Re Astor’s Settlement Trusts, [1952] 1 All E. R. 1067 Morice v. Bishop of Durham (1804) 9 Ves. Jr. 399 (affd. (1805) 10 Ves. Jr. 522) Palmer v Simmonds (1854) 2 Drew. 221 Paul v Constance [1977] 1 W.L.R. 527 Wright v. Atkyns (1823) Turn. R. 143, Secondary Sources Charities Commission (2012) Charities and Public Benefit [online] Available on: [Accessed 9 December 2012] Charities Commission (2012) Operational Guidance: Application of the Property Cy-pres OG2 B2 – 14 March 2012. [online] Available on: [Accessed 13 December 2012] Hudson, A. (2004) Understanding Equity and Trusts (2nd ed) Cavendish: London Hudson, A. (2007) Equity and Trusts (5th ed) Routledge-Cavendish: London Hudson, Alastair (2009). Equity and Trusts (6th ed.). Routledge-Cavendish Thomas, G. Hudson, A. (2004) The Law of Trusts (1st ed.) Oxford University Press How to cite ASSESSED QUESTION: Trusts and Equities, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Sustainability Management

Introduction Organizational sustainability is often a very key ingredient to the survival or long-term presence of a business in a given market. However, the concept is often misunderstood to mean the financial sustainability of an organization because if an organization is unsustainable, the problem normally manifests itself in terms of financial challenges (Authenticity Consulting 2011, p. 1).Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Sustainability Management – British Airways specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is therefore important to understand that organizational sustainability is more holistic than previously believed and in simple terms, it could be equated to the sustainability of individuals, a group of people or even a country. This means that there are many aspects of an organization that have to be sustained (not just the financial aspect). These factors withstanding, it is essential to note that there are a number of primary organizational aspects that if properly sustained, will lead to the overall sustainability of an entire organization. To better gain a more comprehensive understanding of this fact, this study will carry out a case study of British Airways to have a clear picture of its sustainability status. British Airways has for long been deemed the national carrier for United Kingdom (UK) (Winthrop Corporation 2000, p. 1). Its headquarters is in London and much of its activities are grounded at Heathrow airport where most of its operations (of its airline services to more than 300 destinations around the globe) are planned. British Airways (and its subsidiary companies) have since inception undertaken passenger services (both at the local and international levels), freight services and mail services, although recent developments (in 2011) are bound to see a restructuring of the company’s operations to offer new products and services, after it merged with Ib eria (a Spanish airline company) which now holds a significant number of shares in the company (Winthrop Corporation 2000, p. 1). The company’s sustainability has often been dependant on a number of critical organizational aspects. One of them is the personnel or human resource aspect which has seen the organization go through treacherous years of intimidation and threats of strikes by the workers. Another basic organizational aspect is its financial sustainability which was brought to fore by increased competition in the airline and aviation sectors. Lastly, the organization’s sustainability greatly depends on product, service and program sustainability which has recently come to the management’s attention (again due to increased competition in the aviation market). This study will therefore explain how these sustainability areas are of importance to British Airways and how the company performs with regards to these three sustainability factors. Analysis of the Operating Environment As mentioned earlier in this study, British Airways travels to more than 500 destinations globally and because of this huge market presence, the company is considered a leader in its own light. However, in recent times, the company has faced tremendous challenges of coping with the political, economic and social intrigues of its primary markets because it is as a result of the factors prevailing in the operating environments that its future sustainability is in question.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the company’s operating environment, this study will basically focus on the political, economic and social intrigues that prevail in the company’s operating environments. Political and Legal factors British Airways has recently been affected by an increase in global terrorist threats and mo st notably, the September, 11th terrorist attacks in New York and subsequent attacks in London in the years 2005 (Oxford Information Services Limited 2010). The problem was further exacerbated by the Afghanistan and Iraq wars spearheaded by the American government, which further caused a lot of instability in its primary markets. The impact of these political events have been felt in terms of customer confidence in flying, in addition to increased regulations both in Europe and America (such as the new security regulations introduced in the summer of 2006) (Oxford Information Services Limited 2010). Also, considering the increased deregulation trend in the airline industry, BA has consistently faced stiff competition from new airline companies in its primary markets. With such conditions prevailing, the company has increasingly felt the need to make hasty and prudent decisions that will ensure its long term survival in the airline market. Such trends recently adopted include the ope n skies agreement (Oxford Information Services Limited 2010). Lastly, on the political front, BA has faced increased trade union pressures in its primary markets. These pressures have manifested themselves in form of employee strikes and more concern is yet to be registered with regards to environmental concerns, ecological issues and customer rights. Economic BA has consistently faced economic challenges in its primary markets because of the highly elastic demand of its airline services in its primary markets. Recent economic events like the 2008 global economic crunch has significantly affected its bottom-line operations while the instability in Iraq and the Middle East (compounded by recent unrests in the Arab world in Egypt, Libya, Bahrain and other oil producing nations) have managed to drive oil prices to the roofs. It is estimated that a continued rise in oil prices will increase operations costs by up to a hundred million pounds and this development is likely to further wors en the company’s economic standing (Oxford Information Services Limited 2010).Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Sustainability Management – British Airways specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Social factors Social factors affecting BA vary from one destination to another but it is important to acknowledge that social factors are a great determinant of the customer needs and the potential market size in BA’s primary destinations. For example, social factors have consistently led to the growth of a grey market for the airline company which is significantly characterized by an increased need to undertake leisure travels around the globe (Oxford Information Services Limited 2010). These social factors therefore affect the lifestyle, tastes and fashions for a majority of the company’s potential customers and this has consequently affected the demand for the airline’s operations. De scription of BA’s Sustainable Features Product, Service and Program Sustainability Product and service sustainability has often been associated with financial sustainability, considering products and services essentially attract customers to a given business, and so the higher the number of customers a business has, the higher the revenues it will receive. Authenticity Consulting (2011) explains that if a business does not have high quality products, programs or services, it is bound to affect its client’s participation and this will consequently lead to the realization of low revenues. The liberalization of the airline industry, through a breakdown of economic barriers, has significantly led to increased competition among airlines around the world and in the same manner, given enough room for innovation in the creation of airline products, services and programs. This has especially been evidenced in in-flight services such as the provision of in-flight airline enterta inment (The Hindu Business Line 2011, p. 2). This has caused a lot of discomfort for most traditional airline companies like British Airways because new airline entrants have been on the forefront in spearheading the innovation of new products and services. Currently, many airline companies are investing a lot of money in the innovation of new products and services as can be seen from studies done by The Hindu Business Line (2011) which suggests that airline companies in the year 1998 invested more than $1.8 billion in the development of new products, services and programs. The significance of such investments have been acknowledged by many airline companies after recent research studies suggested that the quality of products and services essentially determine the level of customer satisfaction within a given airline company (The Hindu Business Line 2011, p. 2). This also affects a company’s bottom line. Personnel Sustainability There is concern among most businesses and mana gers across the globe that if a company does not have the right employees, then its products and services cannot have the significant impact they are intended to have (Authenticity Consulting 2011, p. 1). This means that the sustainability of a company’s products, services or programs is therefore directly dependent on the personnel sustainability.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of this relationship, we cannot ignore the link that these two organizational aspects (personnel sustainability and products, programs and services sustainability) have on the financial sustainability of a firm. This is true because if an organization does not have good employees, its customers are bound to experience ineffective products and services which will ultimately lead to a significant decrease in the company’s profits. Because of the importance of having a sustainable personnel team in the organization, Authenticity Consulting (2011) proposes that it is important for organizations to have a well-trained and supervised staff, and if there are employees who cannot deliver in time, they should be replaced with people who can. This analysis is important to British Airways because it has in the past been threatened by its personnel situation. Financial Sustainability As mentioned earlier, financial sustainability is normally a representation of how the organizati on performs with regards to other sustainability aspects. Often, when the above sustainability indicators are not effectively managed, a company experiences significant financial shortfalls. Regardless of the situation, Authenticity Consulting (2011) notes that organizations should at all time maintain a financial reserve (so that they are able to survive in case of a financial disaster) and undertake contingency planning (to provide direction to the companies if they do not meet their financial targets). The importance of maintaining a sound financial health for organizations cannot therefore be overemphasized because it is through good financial health that organizations can prove to their shareholders that the company is moving in the right direction. With regards to British Airways, a good financial health is vital for its sustainability, considering most of its human resource challenges are brought about by management’s decision to cut-back on its operational costs (huma n resource is one of the areas they decided to cut-back on). The company now has slightly over 40,000 employees (Smale 2005, p. 1). Nonetheless, it is vital to understand the importance of a good financial health for the company because it is only through a good financial health that the company can be able to regularly pay its workers. Moreover, it would not experience extensive employee objections due to withdrawn perks because it would not have to do so in the first place. Also, considering most airlines are expanding into new travel destinations because of deregulation of the airline sector and increased globalization, it is essential for British Airways to expand in the same respect. This will imply that the company needs to open up new offices, hire new staff, purchase more airplanes (and the likes) and this obviously means the company will require more capital to make the exercise a success. This fact reiterates the importance of having a good financial health to stay relevan t in the market. Finally, considering the company has experienced subsequent years of periodic losses (as will be evidenced in subsequent sections of this study), its financial reserve is quickly depleting and there are already increased concerns regarding the company’s ability to withstand future financial storms once its financial reserves run dry. Essentially, the company will be unsustainable upon such an eventuality or it may be forced to take debts (a move which would ultimately lead to its bankruptcy if things do not look up in the airline industry). These financial aspects are quite important not only for British Airways but all other airline companies because their financial books are normally affected by intrigues in the world economy such as the recent global economic downturn and airline accidents which have a severe financial impact on the companies. Regardless of the above dynamics, British Airways has managed to receive accreditations as the best tourism global organization (in the year 2000) through the Tourism for tomorrow awards (Black 2007). In the same manner, it has received accreditation in adopting ISO standards for lost and damaged goods and luggage (CRC 2011). Benchmarks and Good Practice Many airline companies across the globe have always used different benchmarking tools to analyze their performance. However, for the airline industry one basic element (customer loyalty) remains key in determining an airline’s sustainability standing (Hospitality-Industry 2011). Customer loyalty is especially important because it signifies the performance of all other sustainability factors. For instance, through customer loyalty, an airline’s financial sustainability would improve, and also through an increase in customer loyalty, an airline’s strategy of product and service innovation would seem to be working. To evaluate customer loyalty, the net promoter benchmark has been consistently used. One of the leading airline c ompanies that have had a good record in this criterion is the Jet blue airlines in America which scored 9 out of 10 (Hospitality-Industry 2011). BA has however not done well with regards to the net promoter scale because evidently, it has not had a good rating with regards to customer loyalty (Trim 2008). This can be attributed to increased employee strikes and an adoption of poor management principles. Analysis British Airways’ Financial Performance Sustainability Outcome Recent financial performance reports of British Airways have significantly increased investor concerns of the company’s survival (in light of increased competition). In March, 2010, the company reported one of its worst financial performances in decades, brought about by the recent global economic crunch, volcanic ash clouds in the European airspace and a number of employee strikes and walkouts (Mcghie 2010, p. 1). These factors caused the company to report financial losses of up to 425 million pound s in the period ending March, 2010 (Mcghie 2010, p. 1). This financial performance has caused jitters among the company’s board members who are increasingly registering concerns over the company’s long-term sustainability, considering the company is quickly eating into its only cash reserve of about two billion pounds (Mcghie 2010, p. 1). As mentioned earlier in this study, this poor financial performance is a symptom of the poor management of other functional areas of the company as noted with the crippling employee strikes that the company has endured over the past few months. The poor financial performance is one that is quickly painting a bleak future for the company considering it reported a 358 million pound loss in the previous year 2009 (Mcghie 2010, p. 1). In fact, during the year 2009, the company was forced to withdraw its dividend issue, and also in the same year, the company’s shares plunged by more than 6% to 152p (Mcghie 2010, p. 1). Remarks made by the company’s managing director, Willie Walsh, that there is no hope for future economic improvement in the company’s primary markets has even cast a darker cloud on the future prospects of the company considering the company expects to make more losses in coming years (Milmo 2009). These repeated losses have further increased concerns that the company may not be able to shoulder another blow in the coming years. British Airways’ Employee Performance Sustainability Outcome British Airways has over the years been faced with threats of industrial action from its workers because of the human resource strategy adopted by its managing board (Smale 2005, p. 1). The managing board actually undertook a new strategy of cost-cutting which has not been well received by its workers. This has caused many of its staff (especially the cabin crew) to walk out on the company, therefore leading to a slow down on some of the company’s operations. This has in turn painted a bad picture of the company, especially in the eyes of international investors. The company has since held on to its strategy of withdrawing perks that the company employees used to enjoy (either as a result of the fact that the company is experiencing increased operational costs or as a result of the penalties imposed on workers who went on strike). This has in turn forced the company’s employees to move to the courts to seek redress regarding the situation. The problem was started when one of the company’s auxiliary wings in the catering department terminated the employment of more than 350 members, and this move consequently caused a massive strike that has in subsequent periods been acknowledged by BA’s management as being out of control (Smale 2005, p. 1). British Airways now goes on record as having had three successive strikes in three summers (an action which cost the company up to ten million pounds a day) (Smale 2005, p. 1). The company currently enj oys very minimal staff loyalty and the current staffing levels are at an all-time low. There is also enough evidence to suggest that there is worker militancy that was characteristic of British Airways employees in the 70s and 80s and the vice is still being perpetrated by current employees (Smale 2005, p. 1). There is therefore very minimal cooperation between British Airways employees and its management. This has consequently turned into an almost ‘cat and mouse’ game where the workers strategize to affect the company’s operations by striking when the company is supposed to cash in on high travel periods like summers or when the company’s shareholders are meeting (to spoil the company’s reputation in the eyes of its investors). These kinds of employee actions pose a threat to the company’s long-term sustainability. British Airways’ Product, Service and Program Sustainability Outcome British Airway’s sustainability in the airli ne sectors significantly depends on its products, services and programs because it has in the past traditionally enjoyed a longstanding monopoly in the provision of airline products and services in its traditional markets. However, recent decades have seen the entrance of new airline companies like Qatar airways, Emirates (and the likes) infringe on its market share through the provision of high quality services, products and programs. This has consequently caused a lot of jitters in the organization because the company has realized that if it does not change its traditional products or services, it may eventually lose out on its traditional markets. This has forced the company to come up with new products and services such as the ‘world travelers plus’ and the ‘lounge in the sky’ products and services (The Hindu Business Line 2011, p. 2). These two new products are part of a wider scheme to come up with a comprehensive array of new products and services ai med at ensuring the company’s traditional clients are satisfied with the organization and remain loyal to it. The ‘world travelers plus’ and the ‘lounge in the sky’ products and services are essentially a fourth class cabin category of products and services which are also a product of a 600 million pound investment scheme undertaken by the company in 2001(The Hindu Business Line 2011, p. 4). These new products and services were accompanied by a revamping of the company’s class cabins concord, check-ins and lounges which have been attributed to the companies increased client base over the past few years (The Hindu Business Line 2011, p. 4). These new products and services are also as a result of an additional 150 million pounds investment in an upgrade of its long-haul fleet (which includes new seats and seatback videos) (The Hindu Business Line 2011, p. 4). From these new products and services, British Airways has done a commendable job of imp roving its sustainability status with regards to its products and services. Recommendations To improve the company’s financial performance, it is therefore quite important for the company to properly manage its human resource, because as evidenced from the company’s financial performance, its losses were significantly caused by the series of losses in the last three years. It therefore comes as no surprise that the biggest financial streak of losses for the company started after it started experiencing industrial action. Comprehensively, we can acknowledge that the company needs to reenergize its human resource functions and at the same time, capitalize on its product and service innovations to revamp its financial performance and consequently enhance its sustainability. Conclusion This study identifies the fact that British Airways is facing a sustainability problem in the sense that some of its major organizational aspects which determine its survival are not being p roperly managed or not performing to the expected standards. The major sustainability aspects posing significant challenges to the company include its personnel management and financial performance. However, with regards to its products, service and program innovation, the company is fairing on well. Nonetheless, from the entire analysis, we understand that the three sustainability areas mentioned above are all conjoined, in that; they affect each another in one way or another. References Authenticity Consulting. (2011) Organizational Sustainability. (Online) Available at: . Black, R. (2007) Quality Assurance and Certification in Ecotourism. London, Cabi. CRC. (2011) Principles of Total Quality. London, CRC Press. Hospitality-Industry. (2011) JetBlue Airlines Leads Airline Industry in Customer Loyalty. (Online) Available at: omer_loyalty/ Mcghie, T. (2010) Record Losses at British Airways Spark Survival Fears. (Online) Available at: . Milmo, D. (2009) British Airways Makes Worst Ever Loss. (Online) Available at: . Oxford Information Services Limited. (2010) An Analysis of BA’s Marketing  Environment. (Online) Available at: Smale, W. (2005) BA’s Long History Of Staff Disputes. (Online) Available at: . The Hindu Business Line. (2011) British Airways Launches New Products, Services. (Online) Available at: . Trim, H. (2008) How Will T5 Fiasco Affect BA’s Net Promoter Score. (Online) Available at: g/2008/03/how-will-t5-fiasco-affect-ba-net-promoter-score/ Winthrop Corporation. (2000) British Airways Plc. (Online) Available at: . This assessment on Sustainability Management – British Airways was written and submitted by user Ravenous to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.